|Brazil - Health Advice||
Confirm those recommended for use in your country of residence are up to date, especially those for children and adult boosters of tetanus.
Courses or boosters usually advised:
hepatitis A; typhoid.
Vaccines sometimes advised: diphtheria; hepatitis B; rabies; tuberculosis; yellow fever (mainly for Western and Amazonian areas).
A yellow fever certificate is required if over one 9 months old and entering from an infected country
NOTES ON THE DISEASES MENTIONED ABOVE
Tetanus is contracted through dirty cuts and scratches. This is a serious infection of the nervous system.
Typhoid and hepatitis A are spread through contaminated food and water. Typhoid causes septicaemia and hepatitis A causes liver inflammation and jaundice. In risk areas you should be immunised if good hygiene is impossible.
Tuberculosis is most commonly transmitted via droplet infection. Those going to countries where it is common, especially those mixing closely with the local population and those at occupational risk, e.g. health care workers, should ensure that they have previously been immunised. Check with your doctor or nurse.
Diphtheria is also spread by droplet infection through close personal contact. Vaccination is advised if close contact with locals in risk areas is likely.
Yellow fever is spread by mosquito bites. It is uncommon in coastal tourist areas but can cause serious, often fatal illness so most people visiting risk areas are immunised.
Hepatitis B is spread through infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse, It affects the liver, causes jaundice and occasionally liver failure. Those visiting high risk areas for long periods or at social or occupational risk should be immunised.
Rabies is spread through bites or licks on broken skin from an infected animal. It is always fatal. Vaccination is advised for those going to risk areas that will be remote from a reliable source of vaccine. Even when pre-exposure vaccines have been received urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal bite.
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.
Malaria precautions are essential in Amazon regions all year round. There is very little risk in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo and in the southern states. Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary, sleeping under a mosquito net.
Check with your doctor or nurse about suitable antimalarial tablets.
(Mefloquine OR doxycycline OR Malarone is usually recommended for those visiting risk areas).
Prompt investigation of fever is essential.
If travelling to remote areas, a course of emergency 'standby' treatment
should be carried.
source: Scottish NHS
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|Brazil - Health Advice||