|South Africa - Health Advice||
|Health advice for
Confirm those recommended for use in your country of residence are up to date, especially those for children and adult boosters of tetanus.
Courses or boosters usually advised:
hepatitis A; typhoid.
Vaccines sometimes advised: tuberculosis; hepatitis B; poliomyelitis; rabies; diphtheria.
Yellow fever certificate required if entering from an infected country and over 1 year old.
NOTES ON THE DISEASES MENTIONED ABOVE
Tetanus is contracted through dirty cuts and scratches and poliomyelitis spread through contaminated food and water. They are serious infections of the nervous system.
Typhoid and hepatitis A are spread through contaminated food and water. Typhoid causes septicaemia and hepatitis A causes liver inflammation and jaundice. In risk areas you should be immunised if good hygiene is impossible.
Tuberculosis is most commonly transmitted via droplet infection. Those going to countries where it is common, especially those mixing closely with the local population and those at occupational risk, e.g. health care workers, should ensure that they have previously been immunised. Check with your doctor or nurse.
Diphtheria is also spread by droplet infection through close personal contact. Vaccination is advised if close contact with locals in risk areas is likely.
Hepatitis B is spread through infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse, It affects the liver, causes jaundice and occasionally liver failure. Those visiting high risk areas for long periods or at social or occupational risk should be immunised.
Rabies is spread through bites or licks on broken skin from an infected animal. It is always fatal. Vaccination is advised for those going to risk areas that will be remote from a reliable source of vaccine. Even when pre-exposure vaccines have been received urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal bite.
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.
Malaria precautions are essential in the low altitude areas of the Mpumalanga Province (including Kruger National Park), Northern Province and north - eastern Kwazula - Natal as far south as Tugela river, all year round. Risk is highest from October - May. The rest of the country is normally malaria free. Please note that this map is only intended as a guide since mosquitoes do not respect boundaries and the risk areas shown may not be exact. Substantial malaria risk is shaded in dark red - becoming a lighter red where the risk is minimal.
Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary, sleeping under a mosquito net.
Mefloquine OR doxycycline OR Malarone is usually recommended for those visiting risk areas. Check with your doctor or nurse about suitable antimalarial tablets.
Prompt investigation of fever is essential.
If travelling to remote areas, a course of emergency "standby" treatment
should be carried.
source: Scottish NHS
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|South Africa - Health Advice||